Capital Market

A Gateway to understanding Indian Capital Market

by Shruti Agarwal on Basic Finance, Macroeconomics
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In general terms, capital means finance. To keep the economy rolling, finance lubricates the growth pattern of an economy.

For example, you may have a huge amount of liquid cash at your disposal.Keeping them in your locker will not help the money multiply.

Alternatively, you may move such funds into the bank or financial institution, invest in various schemes, so in turn, this money will flow into the economy via financial markets. Saving not only generates funds for you but also for the economy as a whole.

Thus, capital markets play a vital role in the mobilization of these savings/liquid cash for investment purposes.

Also ReadIndian Capital Market Regulators – Role and functions

By allowing a platform for infusing capital in the economy, trading of securities, raising long-term finance etc financial market plays an imperative role in keeping the economy rolling.

Financial markets are majorly divided into following components:

What is a Capital Market?

Capital markets are a type of financial markets. It is a market for buying and selling financial securities. It acts a conduit in the flow of funds from the savers to the fund seekers.

In fact, capital markets are the most popularly followed financial markets.

The spontaneous platform provided by capital market helps the Government and businesses to raise funds for a variety of long-term purposes such as the expansion of business, mergers, and acquisitions, etc.

In case of capital markets, the money is pooled in for a period of more than a year.

As compared to what capital markets were in the past, the present capital market system is well equipped with an electronically based trading system which provides an expansive platform, bringing together traders from different zones and countries.

The capital market and in particular the stock exchange is referred to as the barometer of the economy. – ICSI study material              

To know more about capital markets you can watch the video below:

What is a Securities Market?

Securities market provides the platform for those financial instruments that are transferable by sale.

It, further, comprises of two important components: primary market and secondary market.

Primary markets deal with newly issued stocks and securities whereas secondary market deals with already issued ones.

Primary Market

Primary markets allow mobilizations of funds via the issue of new securities.

Such funds are primarily utilized for long-term purposes such as starting a new project or modification of an old project.

For example, Company A Limited requires funds. It issues shares in the primary market. When the company issues shares for the first time, it is called  Initial Public Offering (IPO). A further issue of shares is known as Follow-on Public Offer (FPO).  The primary market comprises of both IPO and FPO.

Also ReadUnderstanding Initial Public Offer (IPO)

To understand this better go to the site ET Markets as provided below:




As highlighted above, you will know about the recently raised IPOs/FPOs.

Secondary Market

The secondary market, primarily consisting of stock exchange provides a forum for buy-sell of already issued securities.

After the listing of securities in the stock exchange, the investor can trade in such securities in the secondary market.

For example, Trading on National Stock Exchange (NSE), Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), Calcutta Stock Exchange (CSE) etc.

For example,  You want to buy shares of TATA Steel.

When you open the NSE website and type TATA steel on the search block, you get complete details about that particular stock.

Similarly, for any other stock that you wish to trade in or carry it for long-term purposes, you can get complete details herein.

Also ReadLong-term investment – You Reap What You Sow

Apart from the stock exchanges, there are several websites that show you the market statistics, stock prices etc such as


2) The Secondary Market is further classified as follows:

  • Spot market: The delivery and payment of securities are made immediately without delay.
  • Futures Market: Securities are bought and sold for some predetermined future date.

Also ReadA Detailed Understanding of Derivative Market

To know about the main differences between Primary Market and Secondary markets you can watch the video below:

Money Market:

The borrowers and lender can avail short-term funds up to a maximum period of one year. Money markets are highly liquid in nature, carrying low default risk.


Thus capital markets initiate the entire process of mobilization of savings and channelize such savings to those sources through the investors. The growth of the economy is marked by the process of flow of funds through the aforementioned markets.

In case of any questions, please write us back and mention about other basic finance topics that you would like to know about.

Learn more about financial markets in NSE Academy Certified Capital Market Professional (E-NCCMP) course on Elearnmarkets.

Happy Learning!!

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Disclaimer wants to remind you that all our content is created solely for the purpose of education. No strategy, stock, commodity, fund or any other security discussed here is any way a recommendation for trading or investing. will not be any way responsible for trading losses incurred by any individual or entity for trading with real money. Please take advise of certified financial advisers before trading or investing.


  • Hello Shruti! This blog explains about the Indian capital market in great depth..For someone like me, who is new to this market, it was very helpful..Thanks for sharing your knowledge..

    • @Sukanya – Hi, Thank you for reading through and appreciating.
      We will be further coming up with blogs on related topics. Let us know in case of any similar topics you wish us to add further.
      Happy Learning

  • Hi, Thanks for sharing the basic details around Indian capital market and I was searching for details on it. Actually I am currently pursing CFA level 1 exam and am going through all the educational site to give basic insight around finance anf found it very useful

  • Thank you for the information. We can also add Currency markets being the largest market in the world. This includes all aspects of buying, selling and exchanging currencies at current or determined prices. Currency markets is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies. Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) to participate in Indian Currency Exchange platform to trade and/or hedge with lower costs and higher leverage in an organized regulated environment as compared to the OTC market.

  • I had been freed from the bracket of ambiguity that I involved in. Your blog gives explicit insight about money and capital market. Thank enormously. Improve on

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